CTOD Papers and Publications

Year Document Name Partners/Publisher
2013 Downtowns, Greenfields and Places In Between: Promoting Development Near Transit
This report examines the opportunities and challenges involved in promoting TOD in different types of neighborhoods, and the strategies that may be appropriate to catalyze TOD depending on the neighborhood context.
2013 Infrastructure Financing Options for Transit-Oriented Development EPA
This report provides information about funding mechanisms and strategies that communities can use to provide innovative financing options for TOD. It explains dozens of tools that provide traditional financing as well as new tools. Strategic Economics, one of the three CTOD partners, was a major contributor to this report.

2012 TOD 205: Families And Transit-Oriented Development – Creating Complete Communities For All FTA
Building complete communities around transit requires some new investment approaches and implementation partnerships. Special attention must be paid to ensure these communities remain affordable to families of various compositions and incomes and contain all the amenities that will help them realize the full benefits of transit-rich locations. This booklet offers a guide on how to create complete communities that support families and high-quality education based on a series of reports published by the Center for Cities & Schools at the University of California, Berkeley.

2011 Rails to Real Estate: Development Patterns Along Three New Transit Lines FTA
This report documents real estate development patterns along three recently constructed light rail transit lines in the United States. This topic is important for local planning practitioners, transit agencies, community members and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for new transit investments and foster transit-oriented development (TOD).
2011 Transit Revitalization Investment Districts: Opportunities and Challenges PCRG
This report provides an evaluation of planning and implementation efforts undertaken based on the Pennsylvania Transit Revitalization Investment District (TRID) Act. This innovative law, passed in 2004, has been cited nationally as a model for fostering transit-oriented development (TOD).
2011 TOD 204: Planning for TOD at the Regional Scale FTA
This guidebook, which includes case studies from around the country, focuses on regional planning for TOD, including the general framework and benefits, and eight strategies for successful regional TOD planning.
2011 Transit and Regional Economic Development FTA
This report focuses primarily on the location decisions of employers. The report analyzes the degree to which different industry sectors are currently attracted to transit-rich locations and examines the character of employment clusters near transit.
2011 Transit-Oriented Development and Employment FTA
This paper discusses the relationship between transit and job concentrations and explains the importance of the destination side of the trip for both transit operations and land-use planning in station areas.

2010 TOD and the Potential for VMT-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions FTA
The study shows that for every household, the number of cars owned and the number of miles driven is largely determined by where that household lives. This study also examines real-world potential to use transit and transit-oriented development as an emissions reduction strategy in three different future development scenarios for the Chicago metropolitan area.
2010 TOD 203: Transit Corridors and TOD FTA
Filled with real-world transit-oriented development lessons, the guidebook explains how corridor planning can facilitate not only successful transportation outcomes but also successful transit-oriented development.
2010 Performance Based Transit Oriented Development Typology Guidebook Rockefeller Foundation
This document is a hands-on tool for identifying the different conditions that exist around transit stations and determining how that influences performance on a range of metrics.
2010 CDFIs and Transit Oriented Development SF Federal Reserve Bank
This report discusses the role community development finance institutions could play in promoting equitable transit-oriented development. This document is an initial effort to frame the context of TOD and equity, and to encourage a more robust discourse on the connection between the agendas of CDFIs and TOD.
2010 Transit-Oriented Development Tools for Metropolitan Planning Organizations FTA
This report discusses the tools available to MPOs to support TOD. Metropolitan Planning Organizations play a very important role in the planning and implementation of TOD. As regional planning bodies, MPOs are in a unique position to support stakeholders within their jurisdiction to take actions or adopt policies that support transit-oriented development and provide funding for planning and transit supportive infrastructure

2009 Mixed Income Housing TOD Action Guide GCC
This Mixed-Income TOD Action Guide was developed for the nonprofit Great Communities Collaborative (GCC), which is working in the San Francisco Bay Area to ensure TOD planning processes result in neighborhoods that include households of all income levels. The guide 'walks' users through a three-step analysis to determine the most effective strategies and tools.
2009 TOD 201: Mixed Income Housing Near Transit FTA
The TOD 201 booklet "Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit: Increasing Affordability With Location Efficiency" discusses how providing for a mix of incomes in walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods near transit improves the already considerable benefits of having mixed-income neighborhoods by significantly reducing transportation costs.
2009 Twin Cities Connecting Transportation and Land Use Systems ULI
As part of an effort to promote walkable, transit-oriented places in the Twin Cities, the Center for Transit Oriented Development has just completed a study outlining an approach for transforming existing activity centers into walkable places. This study was done in partnership with the Urban Land Institute in Minnesota and the ULI/Curtis Regional Infrastructure Project and called the Connecting Transportation and Land Use Systems Initiative. The initiative was funded by the McKnight Foundation.
2009 TOD: Making It Happen Carey Curtis, John Renne
Transit Oriented Development, Making it Happen is a book about realizing the concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) in the United States and Australia. Edited by John Renne and Carey Curtis, this book contains a chapter by CTOD staff members Shelley Poticha and Jeff Wood entitled Transit Oriented for All: Delivering Mixed Income Housing in Transit Served Neighborhoods.

2008 Realizing the Potential: One Year Later FTA
The Center for Transit-Oriented Development has updated its 'Realizing the Potential' study for the FTA and HUD, which assessed strategies to promote mixed-income housing along five transit corridors in Boston, Charlotte, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Denver and Portland. The new study finds the downturn in the housing market is playing out very differently in the five regions, but that property along transit corridors in Charlotte, Portland and Minneapolis appears to be holding its value better than in the regions at large.
2008 TOD 202: Transit and Employment FTA
This book discusses the commute trip and its impact on communities, and strategies that can be used to increase transit's share of the commute trip. A great deal of practical and academic activity in the past several decades has been devoted to understanding how land use can support robust transit ridership and realize transit's potential benefits.
2008 Destinations Matter: Building Transit Success FTA
This paper analyzes the performance of 19 transit lines to better understand the factors contributing to high ridership. Of the 19 lines examined, seven exceeded projections, eight are on track to beat projections, and two did not meet projections, while data for three was unavailable. The conclusion: that connecting destinations is key, and that the funding decision-making process needs to take into consideration a fuller range of factors that enhance ridership.
2008 Capturing the Value of Transit FTA
In this era of constrained transit funding and widespread demand for new and expanded transit systems, policy makers, transit planners and elected officials are increasingly interested in harnessing a portion of the value that transit confers to surrounding properties to fund transit infrastructure or related improvements in station areas. This idea, known as 'value capture,' is much discussed in planning, transit, and local government circles.
2008 TOD 202: Station Area Planning FTA
This 202 manual is intended to help with simplifying the complex decisions that surround planning for TOD projects and station areas by providing details about the scales of development likely to occur in different places, as well as station area planning principles and TOD plan checklists.
2008 Mixed Income TOD Action Guide FTA
This Action Guide is a tool for local jurisdictions working to foster mixed-income transit-oriented development (TOD) around planned transit stations. The term 'mixed-income TOD' (MITOD) is shorthand to describe a set of goals that includes the provision of a mix of housing choices, affordable to a range of incomes, for people at different stages of life within a specific transit station area.
2008 Financing Transit-Oriented Development MTC
The Center for Transit-Oriented Development prepared this white paper to help the Metropolitan Transportation Commission consider alternative methods for providing regional funding for transit-oriented development in the San Francisco Bay Area. The report outlines the need for such a funding source, case examples of other Metropolitan Planning Organization programs, and key considerations in implementing a new program targeted to this purpose.

2007 Twin Cities TOD Toolkit McKnight Foundation
This website brings together many of the existing resources and initiatives surrounding TOD in the Twin Cities, including funding sources, regional and local initiatives and transit corridor planning. There is no one-size-fits-all path to creating successful TOD, and by serving as a home base for the many TOD-related projects happening in the region, this site will help focus the conversation while highlighting the many existing resources.
2007 TOD 101: Why TOD? Why Now? FTA
This colorful 24-page 'picture book' lays out in easy-to-read format how shifting demographics and the changing real estate market have opened up an unprecedented window of opportunity for transit-oriented development.
2007 Realizing the Potential: Expanding Housing Opportunities Near Transit FTA, HUD
This new national study funded by the Federal Transit Administration and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development shows that location matters a great deal when it comes to reducing household costs. While families who live in auto-dependent neighborhoods spend an average of 25 percent of their household budget on transportation, families who live in transit-rich neighborhoods spend just 9 percent, the study says. The report examines five case study regions
2007 TOD Implementation In Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Neighborhoods Surdna Foundation
These case studies, funded through the support of the Surdna Foundation, present transit-oriented development (TOD) examples from diverse, low-income neighborhoods around transit, all built within the last 10 years. The goal of this survey is to provide examples that can help spur development around Philadelphia's underutilized transit resources in similar types of neighborhoods.
2007 MTC Station Area Planning Manual MTC
This manual is intended to serve as a companion to MTC's Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy and for Priority Development Areas under the Focusing Our Vision (FOCUS) program to assist jurisdictions with decisionmaking as they complete planning efforts around Bay Area transit hubs and corridors.
2007 Making the Case for Mixed Income TOD in the Denver Region Enterprise
Mixed-income TOD has the potential to meaningfully address the growing affordability crisis in the Denver region. This report, which was commissioned by the Enterprise Community Partners of Denver, concludes that there is a growing demand for housing near transit, and a closing window of opportunity to develop it in a sustainable way with mixed-income housing.
2007 TCRP 128: Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, Travel TCRP
New research recently completed for the Transit Cooperative Research Program provides the ammunition to build TODs that take the benefits of transit into account. The study completed by PB PlaceMaking, Dr Robert Cervero, The Urban Land Institute and the Center for Transit Oriented Development looked at how automobile use of residential TODs compared to conventional development.

2006 Communicating the Benefits of TOD EPA
This is a tale of three cities—Jersey City and neighboring Hoboken in New Jersey, and Evanston, Illinois — that have experienced an enormous amount of development since the late 1980s, reversing three decades of decline brought on by the great suburban exodus of the 1950s. These case studies illustrate that there's little to fear: transit-oriented density and development can enhance surrounding neighborhoods.
2006 Preserving and Promoting Diverse Transit-Oriented Neighborhoods Ford Foundation
This report for the Ford Foundation is about the demand for housing near transit from low-income and very-low-income households, and the racial and economic diversity of households living within a half mile of transit. It describes the benefits of diversity and TOD to maintaining the health of neighborhoods and regions, and the policies that can be employed to meet the demand for transit-oriented housing.
2006 The Affordability Index: A New Tool for Measuring the True Affordability of a Housing choice Brookings Institute
The housing and transportation Affordability Index quantifies the impact of transportation costs on the affordability of housing choices and the savings derived from living in 'location efficient' communities that are near transit, shopping, schools and work. The index was built using data sets that are available for every transit-served community in the U.S. and can be applied in more than 42 cities in the U.S. It is intended to provide consumers, policymakers, lenders and investors with the information needed to make better decisions about which neighborhoods are truly affordable
2006 Street Smart: Streetcars and Cities in the 21st Century Various
This richly illustrated book is about streetcars and the tremendous private investment they help generate. There are case studies of the most robust new systems and the ways they've been used to leverage ambitious public goals like affordability and high-quality public space, and chapters on planning, financing and the more technical aspects of building a system, and also a history of streetcars as a public/private venture.
2006 TOD & Economic Development White Papers FTA
These papers were commissioned by the FTA provide a number of different examples of economic development when referring to TOD.

2005 Value Capture: How to Get a Return on Invesment in Transit and TOD  
This article provides a summary of the many options available for capturing the value of transit and TOD before they're built.

2004 TOD in the USA  
This paper assesses the progress of transit-oriented development in four metropolitan regions — Atlanta, the Bay Area, Chicago and Denver. The shared "lessons learned" include the following: early planning is essential; upfront work on zoning, parking and codes can entice the market; and the planning and entitlements process needs to be made more developer-friendly.
2004 Hidden in Plain Sight: Capturing the Demand for Housing Near Transit FTA
This study by the Center for Transit-Oriented Development shows that demographics and other trends will cause the potential demand for compact housing near transit to more than double by 2025. This means that more than 14.6 million households will be looking to rent or buy near transit, and meeting this demand would require building 2,100 residential units near each of the 3,971 stations in the U.S. today. The study was conducted for the Federal Transit Administration and ranks metro regions according to the development potential.
2004 The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development Island Press
The New Transit Town brings together experts in planning, transportation, and sustainable design to examine the first generation of TOD projects and derive lessons for the next generation. Topics include a typology of projects appropriate for different contexts and scales; the planning, policy and regulatory framework of "successful" projects; obstacles to financing and strategies for overcoming those obstacles; issues surrounding traffic and parking; the roles of all the actors involved and the resources available to them; and performance measures that can be used to evaluate outcomes.
2004 National TOD Database FTA, HUD
The National TOD Database is a project of the Center for Transit-Oriented Development. Intended as a tool for planners, developers, government officials, and academics, the Database provides economic and demographic information for every existing and proposed fixed guideway transit station in the U.S.

2002 Transit-Oriented Development: From Rhetoric to Reality Brookings Institute
This paper offers an expanded definition of TOD that focuses primarily on functions and outcomes, such as increased location efficiency and mobility, more housing and shopping choices, and enhanced value recapture and value return. This definition allows for a more nuanced evaluation of projects, and a different view of why so many don't live up to their potential. The authors also make recommendations on how projects can be improved, focusing on the roles that can be played by the five main actors in the development process. This paper became one of the Urban Center's ten most popular publications of 2002.